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HHC, THC-O, and THC-P: New Compounds in Cannabis

New compounds have been discovered in cannabis, including HHC, THC-O, and THC-P are a few of the compounds we can’t get enough of.

Remember when the only compound we associated with the hemp plant was cannabidiol (CBD)? While CBD remains a mainstay of countless people’s daily routines, the industry has evolved exponentially in the last several years, and the result has been a market that now offers a wide array of cannabinoids that are both federally legal and rich in must-try properties, with many of them being delightfully psychoactive.

Where do all of These Awesomely New Cannabinoids Keep Coming From?

We have a tendency to forget that there are, in fact, well over 100 individual cannabinoids found in any given sample of hemp. The majority of these cannabinoids are classified as minor, meaning that they exist in such trace levels that they seemingly have little impact on the plant’s properties and characteristics as a whole. But, to gloss over them would be a mistake, especially since we now have the technology to isolate and analyze them more thoroughly than ever before.

It’s because of today’s vast market as well as analysis methods, which largely revolve around liquid chromatography, that we’re able to both examine cannabinoids more effectively, and discover ones that up until now, we never knew existed. Pair that with the high demand for psychoactive hemp compounds that happen to be protected by federal law, and you can understand why we’re seeing one new cannabinoid enter the market after another.

HHC

HHC (Hexahydrocannabinol) is one of those more recent discoveries, found in the pollen and seeds of the hemp plant. It’s a hydrogenated cannabinoid that’s phenomenally stable, but what hemp enthusiasts find more exciting is the fact that it behaves as almost a mirror image of delta 9 because of striking similarities in its chemical structure.

HHC is a psychoactive cannabinoid that many say is just a little milder than delta 9 in terms of its high, and it seems to offer all of the other effects that we associate with delta 9 which have to do with nausea, mood, physical discomfort, appetite, and the like.

HHC-O

To make HHC a little more potent to better match the psychoactive nature of delta 9, it can be combined with acetic anhydride, a reagent that can reconfigure the cannabinoid’s structure to enhance, in this case, the cannabinoid’s intoxicating qualities and create HHC-O (HHC-O-Acetate). HHC-O products are about 1.5 times more intoxicating than HHC, which doesn’t sound like much, but it in fact noticeably improves the high for more customer satisfaction. HHC-O is thought to be the closest you can get to real Delta 9 THC. 

THC-O

THC-O (THC-O acetate) is one of the better-known newer cannabinoids on the market, but in reality, it’s not actually new at all. Developed by the military in the mid-20th century, it was the original compound to be produced by combining a naturally occurring cannabinoid—in this case, THC—with acetic anhydride. THC-O products are three times as intoxicating as regular old delta 9, and that’s pretty potent, to say the least. Its high is extremely euphoric, and many say that the body high is out of this world. THC-O is known as the “psychedelic cannabinoid,” and its effects usually take 30 to 45 minutes to kick in. 

THC-P

If you thought THC-O was a powerful psychoactive, wait until you get your hands on THC-P (tetrahydrocannabiphorol) . This is a naturally occurring cannabinoid found in extremely trace amounts in the hemp plant—so trace that it was only discovered a little over two years ago thanks to more advanced analysis methods. THC-P products are about 10 times as psychoactive as delta 9 THC, making it the strongest intoxicating cannabinoid that we know of so far. Like THC-O, its high seems to promise phenomenal levels of euphoria.

THCV

THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) has actually been steadily researched since its discovery in 1973, but it’s only become a subgenre of the hemp market recently. THCV products are tricky because their high is only achievable after consuming a somewhat heavy dosage amount, and even then, the intoxicating effects are only mild.  But THCV has other tricks up its sleeve—primarily, it has been shown in studies to potentially regulate blood sugar, fat metabolization, and other metabolic processes.

Delta 8/Delta 10

Delta 8 and delta 10 THC have both been on the market for longer than the rest of these newer cannabinoids, but they remain big favorites among hemp enthusiasts as the cannabinoid market continues to grow and evolve. Delta 8 and delta 10 products are both about 70% as psychoactive as delta 9 THC. Delta 8 is known for its more relaxing effects, making it a great cannabinoid for evening. Delta 10, meanwhile, offers something of the opposite kind of high, offering an uplifting buzz that can give people a boost of motivation, focus, and even creativity.  

Delta 9 THC

Delta 9 THC has arrived on the legal hemp market, being fully federally compliant by containing a maximum of 0.3% delta 9 per dry weight, which is exactly what the law allows. But, don’t be fooled by that low percentage—federally compliant delta 9 comes in the form of gummies and edibles that contain large enough portion sizes that the 0.3% comes out to a meaningful amount, which in our case is 10 milligrams per piece—plenty to give you the high that you’re looking for.  Legal Delta-9 gummies come with a full spectrum entourage of compounds such as CBC, CBG, CBN, and more.

CBDA/CBGA

Then, we have the non-psychoactive cannabinoids—CBDA and CBGA, or cannabidiolic acid and cannabigerolic acid, respectively. These cannabinoids are actually CBD and CBG in their raw, pre-decarboxylated forms—in other words, they’re what you’d consume if you were to eat the raw flowers of hemp rather than smoking or vaporizing them. These raw cannabinoids have been shown to offer a lot of value, which is fascinating, since we’ve always been told that cannabinoids aren’t worth much until they’ve been heated to a certain temperature, which “activates” their key properties.

CBDA and CBGA have been researched to a surprising extent over the years, and they’re seeing a huge surge in demand thanks to a recent study, done only in January of this year, showing that when taken together, they can bond to virus spike proteins and restructure it to prevent it from absorbing into cells of the body, giving it the stunning potential to prevent the virus from entering the lung tissue.

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Myrcene: The Terpene with Cytotoxic Effects on Cancer Tumors

Myrcene functions as a sedative, an analgesic, a systemic anti-inflammatory, an antibiotic, and a cancer cell antagonist.

Of the 200 aromatic terpenes possible in an individual strain (or cultivar) of cannabis, myrcene is the most common. Also known as β-myrcene, this delicate and naturally occurring molecule conveys an earthy, fruity, and musky aroma (depending on other terpenes present).

Also found in hops, lemongrass, parsley, and wild thyme, myrcene composes an average of 30-65 percent of the essential oils in a particular strain of cannabis. Myrcene is employed in many industries outside of cannabis and hemp, including fragrances, food flavoring, pharmaceuticals, and personal care.

The Details

Myrcene is most common in cannabis strains such as Blackberry Kush, Mango Kush, and White Widow. A 1997 study conducted in Switzerland revealed that myrcene is the most abundant terpene in cannabis, sometimes composing up to 50 percent of the terpene volume in an individual sample of cannabis.

Working both alone and in conjunction with other terpenes and cannabinoids, the terpene functions as a sedative, an analgesic (pain killer), a systemic anti-inflammatory, an antibiotic, and a cancer cell antagonist (meaning it reduces the size of tumors).

The molecule may also offer benefits for those suffering Type 2 diabetes, having demonstrated improved glucose tolerance in obese mice in research studies. When consumed in potent doses, myrcene’s analgesic effects are similar to the pharmaceutical sedative phenobarbital. For those suffering osteoarthritis, this terpene has proven to be a powerful anti-inflammatory.

The percentage of myrcene present in an individual strain of cannabis, as measured in its weight by volume, indicates whether it is categorized as an uplifting sativa strain or a more sedative indica variety. According to leading authorities, including Steep Hill Labs in Berkeley, California, cannabis strains containing more than 0.5 percent myrcene are categorized as an indica or indica-dominant, while those sporting less than 0.5 percent of this terpene are considered a sativa or sativa-dominant strain.

Myrcene is responsible for the age-old urban legend that consumption of mangos before smoking cannabis amplifies the psychoactive effects of its infamous molecular cousin, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This legend is actually true; cannabis consumers who eat a fresh mango before smoking or vaporizing flowers — or consuming a concentrate — will cause an increase in the potency of the effects of the THC.

Research on Myrcene

The fact that cannabis is considered a Schedule 1 drug by the federal government of the United States has squelched much research that might otherwise have been conducted into the hundreds of helpful terpenes and cannabinoids present in the plant. However, much research has been conducted into terpenes and cannabinoids, both in the U.S. and outside its borders.

A March 2015 osteoarthritis study published in the journal European Journal of Pharmacology demonstrated that myrcene is a significant anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic (preventing the breakdown of muscle mass). The study concluded that myrcene slowed and, in some cases, even halted the destruction of cartilage involved in this type of arthritis.

January 2011 study conducted by cannabis researcher Dr. Ethan Russo entitled “Taming THC: Potential Cannabis Synergy and Phytocannabinoid-terpenoid Entourage Effects” and published in the British Journal of Pharmacology concluded that myrcene diminishes inflammation and that it is “analgesic in mice” and “a recognized sedative…employed to aid sleep.” The study also cited the ability of myrcene to act “as a muscle relaxant in mice” and causes sleep, especially when consumed in strong doses.


SOURCE : https://cannabisaficionado.com/myrcene/

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Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-8-THC)

Delta-8-THC is a minor cannabinoid, occurring in cannabis in very small concentrations. Delta-8-THC is also a degraded form of delta-9-THC. When THC is stored for a long period of time, it degrades into delta-8-THC.

What is delta-8-THC?
There are more than 100 cannabinoids present in the cannabis plant. While we have some foundational knowledge about primary cannabinoids like delta-9-THC (more commonly known as THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), we know less about the secondary, or minor, cannabinoids like delta-8-THC.

Delta-8-THC is distinct from THC, the most abundant and intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis. Delta-8-THC is an analog of THC and has a similar molecular structure with a few notable differences. While the two share many similar properties, such as reportedly stimulating appetite, reducing nausea, and soothing pain, delta-8-THC tends to exhibit a lower psychotropic potency than THC when inhaled. When ingested, however, delta-8-THC can deliver the same intoxicating effects as THC. So be mindful when trying delta-8-THC edibles for the first time and use the same caution you would with THC edibles.

Delta-9-THC vs delta-8-THC: similarities and differences

Chemical structure
From a chemical or structural perspective, delta-8-THC differs from delta-9-THC due to the location of a critical chemical bond. Both forms of THC contain double bonds in their molecular chain. Delta-8-THC contains that bond on the 8th carbon chain, while delta-9-THC contains the bond on the 9th carbon chain. Although it seems like a subtle difference, it has a major impact on the shape of these molecules. This shape directly determines how well the molecules are able to bind to the body’s endocannabinoid receptors.

Molecular stability
Delta-9-THC is less stable than delta-8-THC. Delta-9-THC is easily oxidized to become cannabinol (CBN) or delta-8-THC. Delta-8-THC is stable, does not oxidize to become CBN, and boasts a prolonged shelf life. Such stability is desirable in a medicinal compound.

Affinity for cannabinoid receptors
Delta-8-THC, when inhaled, binds to the CB1 receptor like delta-9-THC, but its affinity for the receptor is different due to its slightly altered molecular structure and related shape. The CB1 receptor is responsible for mediating most of the psychotropic effects of THC. This differential binding may be responsible for delta-8-THC’s reportedly producing a clearer high with less anxiety than delta-9-THC. It’s also possible that delta-8-THC’s molecular structure affects how it interacts with other receptors and neural pathways.

Effects from consumption
Plenty of clinical and anecdotal evidence points to delta-9-THC having intoxicating effects when consumed via inhalation or ingestion. We know much less about the effects of delta-8-THC. Some say delta-8-THC produces a milder, clearer high than delta-9-THC even at higher doses. However, pharmacologically, delta-8-THC edibles function very similarly to delta-9-THC edibles, with both molecules converting into 11-hydroxy-THC in the liver. Because there is so much we have yet to learn about delta-8-THC, and because the effects are very different depending on whether it’s ingested or inhaled, it’s wise to treat these products with the same caution you would treat THC products.

WARNING: Exercise extra caution when trying delta-8-THC edibles for the first time.

Delta-8-THC’s medical potential

A range of preclinical and clinical studies are uncovering some of the unique properties and therapeutic potential of delta-8-THC.

Pain and inflammation
A 2018 preclinical study published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research found that delta-8-THC may help to diminish pain and inflammation in corneal injury in mice. The research found that delta-8-THC, applied topically, assisted in pain reduction, and reduced inflammation through its effects on the CB1 receptors. Another preclinical study on rats reported that delta-8-THC delivers pain relief, but that tolerance to the cannabinoid developed rapidly.

Anxiety
According to the US National Library of Medicine, delta-8-THC displays anxiety-reducing qualities similar to delta-9-THC. Anecdotal reports claim that the consumption of delta-8-THC results in a calm, focused high, but we need more clinical research into its anti-anxiety potential before drawing any conclusions.

Nausea
The nausea-fighting potential of delta-8-THC was reported in a 1995 study published in Life Sciences. The study followed eight pediatric cancer patients over two years and found that no vomiting occurred when patients ingested delta-8-THC before and for 24 hours after cancer treatment. The study reported very few side effects.

Lose of appetite
Delta-8-THC may also help stimulate the appetite. Research conducted on mice and published in 2004 in Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior found that a low dose of delta-8-THC administered to mice over 50 days resulted in a 22% increase in food intake compared with controls. The research also reported that delta-8-THC increased food intake significantly more than delta-9-THC, a known appetite stimulant.

Side effects and warnings

Since it’s a minor cannabinoid, we have much more to learn about delta-8-THC, which necessitates a cautious approach toward using it. Presently, the cannabinoid is generally available in concentrated forms, because cannabis flower usually contains less than 1% delta-8-THC.

To acquire a substantial quantity of this cannabinoid, a significant amount of extraction and refinement must take place. While some delta-8-THC concentrates are isolates, other products may combine delta-8-THC with CBD and/or delta-9-THC for a more full-spectrum effect.

If you’re thinking about consuming delta-8-THC, it’s vital to be aware that a great deal of the current knowledge we have about the cannabinoid is based on animal studies. Research on animals has indicated that delta-8-THC (along with delta-9-THC) resulted in increased blood pressure by temporarily constricting the blood vessels. The rise in blood pressure was then followed by a drop in blood pressure and a slower heart rate.

The effects observed in animals can be very different from the effects observed in humans, as evidenced in a 2018 systematic review published in Pharmaceuticals. For example, while delta-8-THC significantly slowed heart rate in animals, it conversely increased heart rate in humans. The authors of the review concluded that there is limited data about the effects of delta-8-THC, and further studies need to be conducted in human populations to understand how it induces changes in blood flow.

WARNING: Exercise caution when trying delta-8-THC products for the first time.

Ingesting vs. inhaling delta-8-THC

You should also be aware that like delta-9-THC, ingested delta-8-THC gets converted to 11-hydroxy-THC in the liver. This results in many people overindulging in edibles without realizing it. This also means hemp-derived delta-8-THC edibles may be just as potent as marijuana-derived edibles. Though sometimes unregulated, delta-8-THC edibles can still lead to a very uncomfortable psychological shift for the unprepared.

Inhaling delta-8-THC won’t send the cannabinoid to your liver, and as a result, won’t produce the same potentially intoxicating effects.

WARNING: Exercise extra caution when trying delta-8-THC for the first time.


SOURCE: WEEDMAPS.COM

Delta 8 Gummy Giveaway!

Statements regarding Delta-8, CBD, hemp, or dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the FDA, and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition.